Due to their characteristic structure, liposomes interact in the freezing process by inducing the formation of ice micro-crystals.
This property is due to the emulsifying effect of the liposome and also to the structure of the liposome macromolecule itself.
With their content of “protected” water, liposomes have an effect on the kinetics of dough water, speeding up penetration in the freezing phase and slowing it down in the warming up phase, modifying the demand for thermal energy addition or removal, the time of exchange of latent heat and lowering the freezing point of free water.
Liposomes favour the freezing process with deep penetration right to the centre of the product before complete crystallization of the water.
The resulting rapid freezing process favours the formation of micro-crystals of ice that do not damage the structure of doughs and their contents (proteins, yeast, etc.).
This intact structure constitutes an obstacle for ice sublimation (avoiding the possibility of a dew effect in packaged products).
Defrosting will be delayed as a consequence of the presence of frozen water in the liposome structure which, protected by its composition and its spatial configuration, represents a cold reserve that slows down the melting process of the ice itself.
Consequently, the micro drops of transformation water will easily be reabsorbed, avoiding softening due to the formation of macro drops of free water.
Another practical consideration is that a liposome, being very assimilative of water, tends to render dough physically more consistent, and so the addition of an amount of water equal to the amount of liposome used is recommended.
Evidently this property can be managed and exploited in both directions.
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